好记性不如铅笔头

ARM, STM32, 操作系统

STM32CubeMX简单使用笔记:内存分配

因为项目需要,最近重新拾起来STM32,正好趁着这个机会好好的梳理下遇到的知识细节。
STM32CubeMx默认移植和链接newlib,因此理论上我们可以方便的使用printf,malloc,free等功能,如下图:

这里我们只关注内存这块,移植newlib时需要_sbrk函数,这里STM32CubeMX在生成工程的时候帮忙生成了代码,如下:

//sysmem.c
/**
 * Pointer to the current high watermark of the heap usage
 */
static uint8_t *__sbrk_heap_end = NULL;

/**
 * @brief _sbrk() allocates memory to the newlib heap and is used by malloc
 *        and others from the C library
 *
 * @verbatim
 * ############################################################################
 * #  .data  #  .bss  #       newlib heap       #          MSP stack          #
 * #         #        #                         # Reserved by _Min_Stack_Size #
 * ############################################################################
 * ^-- RAM start      ^-- _end                             _estack, RAM end --^
 * @endverbatim
 *
 * This implementation starts allocating at the '_end' linker symbol
 * The '_Min_Stack_Size' linker symbol reserves a memory for the MSP stack
 * The implementation considers '_estack' linker symbol to be RAM end
 * NOTE: If the MSP stack, at any point during execution, grows larger than the
 * reserved size, please increase the '_Min_Stack_Size'.
 *
 * @param incr Memory size
 * @return Pointer to allocated memory
 */
void *_sbrk(ptrdiff_t incr)
{
  extern uint8_t _end; /* Symbol defined in the linker script */
  extern uint8_t _estack; /* Symbol defined in the linker script */
  extern uint32_t _Min_Stack_Size; /* Symbol defined in the linker script */
  const uint32_t stack_limit = (uint32_t)&_estack - (uint32_t)&_Min_Stack_Size;
  const uint8_t *max_heap = (uint8_t *)stack_limit;
  uint8_t *prev_heap_end;

  /* Initalize heap end at first call */
  if (NULL == __sbrk_heap_end)
  {
    __sbrk_heap_end = &_end;
  }

  /* Protect heap from growing into the reserved MSP stack */
  if (__sbrk_heap_end + incr > max_heap)
  {
    errno = ENOMEM;
    return (void *)-1;
  }

  prev_heap_end = __sbrk_heap_end;
  __sbrk_heap_end += incr;

  return (void *)prev_heap_end;
}
这里 __sbrk_heap_end 指向的是当前堆的指针位置,max_heap指向的是堆默认的最大值。这里各个指针偏移如下图:

地址偏移是如何计算的呢,这里可以看下最终的链接脚本:

/* XXXX_FLASH.ld */

/* Highest address of the user mode stack */
_estack = ORIGIN(RAM) + LENGTH(RAM);	/* end of "RAM" Ram type memory */

_Min_Heap_Size = 0x200 ;	/* required amount of heap  */
_Min_Stack_Size = 0x400 ;	/* required amount of stack */

。。。。
。。。。

 /* Initialized data sections into "RAM" Ram type memory */
  .data : 
  {
    . = ALIGN(4);
    _sdata = .;        /* create a global symbol at data start */
    *(.data)           /* .data sections */
    *(.data*)          /* .data* sections */

    . = ALIGN(4);
    _edata = .;        /* define a global symbol at data end */
    
  } >RAM AT> FLASH   /* data第一个链接进RAM */

  /* Uninitialized data section into "RAM" Ram type memory */
  . = ALIGN(4);
  .bss :
  {
    /* This is used by the startup in order to initialize the .bss section */
    _sbss = .;         /* define a global symbol at bss start */
    __bss_start__ = _sbss;
    *(.bss)
    *(.bss*)
    *(COMMON)

    . = ALIGN(4);
    _ebss = .;         /* define a global symbol at bss end */
    __bss_end__ = _ebss;
  } >RAM  /* bss第二个链接进RAM */  

  /* User_heap_stack section, used to check that there is enough "RAM" Ram  type memory left */
  ._user_heap_stack :
  {
    . = ALIGN(8);
    PROVIDE ( end = . );
    PROVIDE ( _end = . );
    . = . + _Min_Heap_Size;
    . = . + _Min_Stack_Size;
    . = ALIGN(8);
  } >RAM  /* _user_heap_stack第三个链接进RAM */  

 

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